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School of Computer Science

Lincoln School of Computer Science
University of Lincoln
Brayford Pool
Lincoln
LN6 7TS
Web Enquiries Tel + 44 (0)1522 882000
Minicom 01522 886055

Anatomy and Functionality

The eyes are our sensory organs that we need to see all sorts of visible things. When rays of light enter the eye, they are focused onto the retina by the cornea and the lens. The nerve impulses produced by the retina are sent along the optic nerve to the brain to produce the image that we see. The eye consists of many complicated parts, including supportive layers, optical components and neural components.


The anatomy of the eye, taken from http://www.eyemdlink.com/pop/eyeAnatomy.htm

The eyeball is coated by sclera which is the white, dense, fibrous layer from condensation of the mesenchyme. The cornea is a transparent layer of the eyeball which covers the iris and pupil. The light rays pass to the lens through the pupil, which is an opening in the centre of the iris. The iris is the colored diaphragm in the anterior chamber of the eyeball which contracts and expands to control light intensity. The lens is a dual-convex clear crystalline organ which focuses light rays onto the retina. The vitreous fluid is a clear jellylike substance filling the posterior chamber of the eyeball, normally attached to the retina. The retina is the membrane on the inner wall of the eyeball divided into two developmental layers, the pigment layer and the neural layer which receives the rays of light from the lens and converts it into nerve impulses. These impulses travel along the optic nerve to the brain, where they are converted to images.

There are two types of photoreceptors contained in the retina: rods and cones. With their central location, cones are responsible for bright light and colors, while the rods are responsible for peripheral and night vision. The macula refers to the important centre of the retina, 5mm in diameter, which is responsible for central vision. The fovea is the central area of macula which is responsible for sharp vision and is the region of highest visual acuity and cone cell density.

The optic disc is the area where the optic nerve is connected to the retina and can be seen as a bright yellow disc. All of the blood vessels supplying the retina enter and exit via the optic disc. Its diameter is often used as a standard to measure distances and sizes in the fundus image.

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Dr. Bashir Al-Diri (PhD., MSc., BSc., FHEA)
Lincoln School of Computer Science
University of Lincoln
Brayford Pool
Lincoln LN6 7TS
United Kingdom
Email My Webpage Phone: +44 1522 837111
Fax: +44 1522 886974